Signs of a Vitamins Deficiency

How to determine which vitamins are lacking An expert names the signs of a lack of vitamins from different groups in the body.

Causes of hypovitaminosis

Hypovitaminosis is a disease caused by a deficiency of one or more vitamins. It is associated either with a low intake of the vitamin or with conditions that prevent the absorption of the vitamin in the body. The body lacks certain vitamins in the body in 85% of the population.

Signs of a Vitamin Deficiency

At risk are people who lead an unhealthy lifestyle (drink, smoke), eat convenience foods, canned food, and fast food, or live in ecologically unfavorable areas. Of course, health problems that make it difficult to absorb and metabolize vitamins can also lead to a deficiency. Among them, for example, are kidney disease, liver cirrhosis, Crohn’s disease, malabsorption syndrome, and problems with the gastrointestinal tract. A procedure such as gastric bypass (reduction) can also affect the proper absorption of vitamins.

Do not confuse hypovitaminosis with beriberi. Avitaminosis is a serious pathology in which one or more vitamins do not enter the body.

Signs of Vitamin Deficiency in the Body

Vitamins regulate metabolic processes, catalyze biochemical reactions, and aid in the absorption of many mineral components, i.e., they help the body function fully. But how do you know that the body’s need for vitamins is unsatisfied? Vitamin deficiency can be signaled by dry skin and hair loss, bad moods, depression, poor wound healing, constant fatigue, drowsiness, and much more.

There are many clear symptoms of vitamin and mineral deficiencies. Usually, external signs manifest themselves “in all their glory” after a few months of a lack of one or another vitamin, says Dr. Mukhina. – When a person makes up for the deficiency, in most cases, the condition improves, and the symptoms disappear.


Vitamin D is naturally formed when the skin is exposed to sunlight. But people spend a lot of time under the sun, so vitamin D deficiency is common. Meanwhile, without the “sunshine” vitamin D, calcium, which comes from food, is absorbed only by 10-15%! If vitamin D is enough, then the absorption of calcium is 30–40%. Signs of vitamin D deficiency:

  • constant fatigue and weakness, frequent colds
  • joint pain, muscle spasms;
  • poor concentration, headaches, high blood pressure, mood swings, sleep disturbance;
  • hair loss, dry skin;
  • slow wound healing.
Signs of a Vitamin Deficiency


A lack of vitamin D violates fat metabolism, weight gain, and the slow dynamics of weight loss on a diet. But the main problems, of course, are associated with osteoresorption (the thinning or destruction of bone tissue), hence osteopenia, osteoporosis, aging of the facial skeleton, and fractures. Implantation problems may occur.

Vitamins of Group A

Signs of vitamin A deficiency include vision problems. Vitamin A deficiency causes eye diseases such as:

  • xerophthalmia: severe dryness of the eyes, which, if left untreated, can lead to blindness;
  • nyctalopia, or night blindness;
  • the appearance of uneven spots on the whites of the eyes;
  • hearing impairment.

With a low vitamin A content, severe dryness is observed not only in the eyes but also in the skin and hair. If you are constantly deficient in vitamin A, this will come back to haunt you with a decrease in immunity, respiratory diseases, and anemia.

However, because this vitamin is insidious, overdoses are possible. Read about what foods contain it and in what quantity, and how to take vitamin A correctly.


A deficiency of fat-soluble vitamin E in a healthy person is rare, but it is possible with prolonged fasting. If vitamin E is not enough, then, most likely, a lack of bile or diseases in which fat in the body is not absorbed properly are “to blame.” How do I understand that there is not enough vitamin E? They will say about it:

  • muscle weakness;
  • problems with coordination;
  • numbness and tingling;
  • weakened immune system;
  • visual impairment. 
Signs of a Vitamin Deficiency


Another fat-soluble vitamin is vitamin K. Low vitamin K levels can be suspected if the following symptoms are present:

  • nosebleeds;
  • bleeding gums;
  • prolonged healing of wounds;
  • frequent bruising;
  • Women have long and heavy menstruation;
  • low blood pressure due to blood loss;
  • dizziness;
  • diarrhea. 


A vitamin C deficiency can be characterized by general weakness and fatigue. Increased irritability. There are bleeding gums and pain in the muscles and joints. Colds are common in adults and children, and wound healing takes a long time.


Symptoms of a lack of B vitamins can include increased hair loss, brittle nails, and deterioration of the skin of the face (peeling, frequent irritation, acne). Vitamins of this group benefit the central nervous system; therefore, with their deficiency, fatigue, irritation, and insomnia are observed.

Signs of a B12 deficiency:

  • constant fatigue or weakness;
  • pale skin;
  • cardiopalmus;
  • loss of appetite and weight;
  • confusion and memory impairment;
  • soreness of the mouth and tongue.

Vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin) is needed for the formation of red blood cells, neuronal development, and DNA synthesis. What foods should be included in your diet if you do not have enough vitamin B12?

vitamin b12

With a lack of vitamin B6 (pyridoxine, pyridoxal, and pyridoxamine), symptoms can be:

  • seborrheic dermatitis;
  • loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting;
  • irritability, severe anxiety, insomnia
  • lethargy, depression, fatigue;
  • cramps and numbness in the limbs

A signal of a lack of vitamin B9 (folic acid) may be a delay in sexual development in girls or early menopause in women. This vitamin is essential during pregnancy. Folic acid deficiency leads to impaired fetal development.


How do I check which vitamins are missing? Go to the medical laboratory and take blood and urine tests. Which analysis to perform depends on the specific substance. For example, the level of B vitamins can be checked both ways. The vitamin D content will only be more accurate with a blood test. The doctor must decipher the tests. Your doctor may also order an endoscopy or colonoscopy to rule out Crohn’s disease or malabsorption syndrome, which can prevent the absorption of vitamins even if you eat a balanced, varied diet.

– Deficiency of various vitamins can cause different symptoms; for example, vitamin C deficiency combined with other vitamins can lead to fatigue, dry skin, and easy bruising. Do not expect a universal answer from the series “Dry skin: drink vitamin E; tired: take vitamin D.” Only tests will help establish the cause of your ailment and eliminate it.


If a deficiency is detected, the attending physician will prescribe preparations containing a particular vitamin and indicate the form of administration (tablets, powders, ampoules, capsules) and its duration. If hypovitaminosis is severe, the patient may be prescribed treatment with injections. If the deficit is small, make your diet more varied and balanced.

You should not fear getting too many vitamins from ordinary food. Reasonable food intake is unlikely to lead to hypervitaminosis. But buying vitamins, dietary supplements, and multivitamin supplements in a pharmacy without consulting a doctor, having diagnosed yourself “by eye,” and taking them “just in case” is not worth it; there are already more solid dosages.

Undergoing treatment under the supervision of a doctor, periodically taking tests, checking the growth of the level of nutrients

What diseases can develop due to a lack of vitamins in the body?

A permanent lack of vitamins, if not taken in time, leads to diseases that may be incurable. Due to the constant deficiency of vitamins, you can:

  • vision loss;
  • memory loss;
  • changes in behavior;
  • respiratory failure, shortness of breath;
  • heart rhythm disturbance, tachycardia (rapid heartbeat);
  • decreased sensation in the arms and legs, weakness of the fingers

Lack of vitamins during pregnancy can lead to fetal development problems, especially in the first two months, when women are sometimes unaware that they are expecting a baby.


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