Features of nutrition during pregnancy
A woman in position often thinks she should review her diet and make it to the baby’s needs. Indeed, pregnancy and nutrition are inextricably linked concepts: the nutrition of the expectant mother can affect the child’s development during pregnancy and his health after birth. At the same time, opinions about what foods should be included in the mother’s diet often differ radically. Let’s try to understand the basics of proper nutrition during pregnancy.
The most important rules of nutrition for pregnant women
1. Keep track of the calorie content of food and the variety of foods consumed.
It would be great if the expectant mother began to think about her diet in advance and mastered the basics of a healthy diet for those planning a pregnancy. In this case, it will not be difficult for her to establish a regimen in an interesting position. She already knows that the proper nutrition of a pregnant woman should not be monotonous; dishes from various food products must be included on the menu: meat, fish, cereals, vegetables, fruits, etc.
2. Eat often and in small portions.
In an interesting position, a woman’s appetite improves markedly, especially in the second trimester or when toxicosis passes. The expectant mother needs to be more careful and prudent at this time. The nutrition of a pregnant woman in the early stages should be dosed so as not to get better and, at the same time, be able to provide the baby with useful substances.
3. Eliminate harmful products or limit their use.
Logically, a healthy diet for pregnant women excludes the frequent use of harmful foods: fast food, salty and smoked products, sweets, and starchy foods. It is important to remember that in most cases, their excessive consumption can adversely affect the child and in order not to harm the baby, you should eat them in moderation.
4. Never skip breakfast.
In the first trimester, the expectant mother may suffer from nausea and vomiting – signs of early toxicosis, due to which women often skip meals in the morning. Doctors insist that at least a small snack is necessary for breakfast. You can choose something that will not cause nausea attacks: for example, some fruit or lean product.
5. Gently prepare food.
Nutritionists who advise on healthy eating recommend using methods such as baking, stewing, boiling, or steaming. At the same time, the dishes retain a maximum of vitamins for mom and baby.
6. Drink plenty of fluids and do not eat dry food.
This is the golden rule of healthy nutrition for pregnant and lactating mothers. Drinking at least one and a half to two liters of water daily helps remove toxins and improve bowel movements.
What foods should women eat during the first trimester of pregnancy?
The expectant mother’s diet in the first trimester should be healthy and balanced. Eat plenty of vegetables and fruits – they are rich in vitamins and fiber. Do not forget carbohydrate food – it satisfies the female body’s increased energy needs. Do not give up meat and dairy products, which supply proteins – the building blocks for a growing fetus. Have fish days from time to time to get enough essential omega acids.
What can not be eaten during early pregnancy?
At the beginning of pregnancy, the fetus is most vulnerable, so the expectant mother should eat only high-quality and fresh food. Especially dangerous in the early stages are raw foods and dishes that have undergone insufficient heat treatment, such as unpasteurized milk, blue cheeses, soft-boiled eggs, sushi, bloody meat, etc. They can lead to bacterial infections that are dangerous for a healthy pregnancy.
Nutrition for a pregnant woman in trimesters
Most women who want to get pregnant start to watch what they eat before they get pregnant. But it’s never too late to start eating healthy foods, even if pregnant women haven’t thought about it before. So, what should a pregnant woman eat?
In the 1st trimester, nutritionists recommend gradually switching to a healthy diet. Changing your diet too quickly will not help. Nutrition in the early stages of pregnancy should be varied. In the 1st trimester, products containing beneficial trace elements should be smoothly introduced. The most important thing is to keep the future mother in a good mood and well-being.
In the 2nd trimester, the fetus develops rapidly. During this period, it is necessary to include in the diet products that contribute to the further growth of the baby. The brain and respiratory organs develop, the laying of teeth occurs, and the skeletal system is strengthened. Mom needs to eat meals containing calcium and vitamin D.
In the 3rd trimester, you need to pay as much attention as possible to the calorie content of food. During this period, there is a high probability of rapid weight gain, which can complicate the last weeks of pregnancy and the birth process. With edema, which often occurs in the 3rd trimester, you should consult a specialist and follow a special diet.
|Pregnancy period||I trimester||II trimester||III trimester|
|Requirements for macro and micronutrients||Animal amino acids, calcium, proteins, vitamin B.||Calcium, vitamins A, C, E, D, iodine, magnesium, phosphorus, proteins, fats, potassium, iron.||Vegetable fats, vitamins E and D, ascorbic acid, retinol, calcium.|
|Featured Products List||Lean meat, eggs, lean cheese and cottage cheese, liver, legumes, wholemeal bread, seaweed, fresh juice, fruits and vegetables, grains, sea fish.||Bran bread, dairy products, spinach, sea fish liver, lean meat, cereal cereals, vegetables and fruits, greens.||Sea fish, fruits and vegetables, nuts, vegetable soups, cereals, dairy products.|
|List of not recommended products||Fast food, chips, canned food, carbonated drinks, coffee, alcohol.||Canned food, rich products, mushrooms, coffee, alcoholic drinks, fast food, smoked and spicy dishes.||Salty, fried, spicy dishes; |
alcoholic and carbonated drinks, strong coffee, fatty foods.
As seen from the table, the list of not recommended and allowed products is approximately the same in the first and third trimesters. The most important thing is to make the weekly menu varied and balanced, which will help the baby develop properly.
Nutrition of the expectant mother by weeks of child development
Changes are constantly taking place in the expectant mother’s body; the fetus grows and develops, which means that the need for substances and trace elements varies depending on the duration of pregnancy. The nutrition of a pregnant woman by week should remain healthy and varied. However, certain foods must be added to the diet.
- 1-4 weeks: dairy products (especially cottage cheese), green vegetables, eggs, broccoli, spinach, oatmeal, turkey;
- 5-10 weeks: dairy products, sauerkraut, dried fruits, lean beef, fruits, fruit drinks;
- 11-16 weeks: milk and dairy products (cottage cheese, kefir, cheeses), low-fat fish and meat, fruits and vegetables;
- 17-24 weeks: cabbage, bell peppers, carrots, lean poultry, rabbit, fish, eggs, berries, greens;
- 25-28 weeks: cereal cereals (oatmeal, buckwheat), soups with low-fat broth, stewed vegetables, baked or boiled meat.
- 29-34 weeks: redfish, nuts, eggs, dairy products.
- 35-40 weeks: fresh fruits, stewed vegetables, salads, and meat in small quantities.
Experts note that the nutrition of a pregnant woman should be balanced. It should contain sources of protein, fats, vitamins, and minerals. The closer the timing of childbirth, the more “light” the expectant mother’s diet should be.
Prenatal Nutrition Pyramid
Experts recommend that their patients use the pregnancy nutrition pyramid. Doctors rightly believe that this graphic image, like a table, summarizes all the necessary information. It shows what to eat during pregnancy and what should not be consumed. For ease of reference, healthy foods are listed in descending order of benefit (from bottom to top).
- vegetables and fruits;
- dairy and meat products;
- animal fats, sweets.
On the last floor – animal fats and sweets – are the products that should be as small as possible in the diet of a pregnant and lactating woman.
So, we looked at how to eat right for pregnant women: what foods are best to eat and what kind of food intake should be followed by the expectant mother. Pregnancy is a time of great opportunity to take care of yourself and your baby. A woman in an “interesting position” should remember that nutrition plays an important role in the development of the fetus. In addition, the daily diet affects the well-being and mood of the mother herself.
What should be excluded from the diet during pregnancy?
By and large, no products from the assortment of an ordinary supermarket, if they have not deteriorated and are cooked correctly, can harm the baby – only the figure of the expectant mother. Products harmful to the fetus get on the table in completely different ways. For example, these are large predatory sea fish (may contain a significant amount of mercury), game (there may be particles of lead from the shot), products purchased “on the highway,” “from grandmother,” etc. d. (the composition of toxic substances can be very diverse).
What absolutely can not be done during pregnancy?
During the entire pregnancy, the expectant mother should not drink alcohol. Medicine believes there is no safe dose of alcohol when bearing a baby, so it must be completely abandoned.