ACNE ON THE FACE: CAUSES AND TREATMENT
The problem of acne is one of the most common in modern cosmetology. Pimples can be a real affliction for both women and men. They can appear at any age – from puberty – a period of serious hormonal changes and ending with adulthood.
This article will analyze what to do if acne has become a real problem, how to deal with it, and which doctor to turn to for help.
Varieties of acne
On the entire surface of human skin are glands of external secretion, which secrete sebum (sebum). The main function of sebum is to protect the skin from negative environmental factors. Normally, the daily mass of sebum secreted by the glands in an adult is about 20 grams. However, for various reasons, this volume increases, which leads to the expansion of pores and the formation of various rashes on the skin of the face in the form of black dots and pimples; the skin becomes oily and dehydrated.
There are different types of acne:
- Comedones (pimples in the form of open black dots and closed white dots)
Comedones are non-inflammatory small nodes of white (closed acne) or black (open acne) color; they occur as a result of blockage of the mouths of hair follicles.
- papules (pimples of red and pink shades)
Papules are called barren formations on the skin of a reddish or pink hue. In addition to the aesthetic disadvantage, abscesses can cause physical discomfort – itching, burning sensation, inflammation, and skin irritation. Often, blemishes occur at the site of comedones due to their defeat by bacteria.
- pustules (purulent pimples)
Purulent formations are called blemishes. A pustule is an infected abscess and is a white-headed pimple surrounded by inflamed skin. Pustules form when bacteria get into the pores.
- nodes (nodules, subcutaneous acne)
Nodules are hard and painful to the touch formations that form in the deep layer of the skin. This is a serious type of acne, this type of acne is strictly forbidden to squeeze out on your own. How they appear as a result of rupture of the walls of the follicles, as a result of which dead cells, sebum, and bacteria are released from the follicle. Mechanical influences can cause the spread of infection and lead to a deterioration in the condition of the skin of the face.
- cystic acne
One of the most difficult types of acne. Cystic acne is formed in the deep layers of the dermis as a result of the rupture of the walls of the follicles and the release of their contents, which matures under the skin. Cysts destroy tissues under the skin, can merge into a common chain, and often leave behind noticeable traces in the form of pigmentation and scarring.
Causes of pimples
Pimples result from clogged pores, hair follicle orifices, or sebaceous gland ducts with sebum and keratinized particles of surface skin cells. When interacting with oxygen, the accumulated mass is oxidized, and the formation of a color characteristic of acne begins. The composition formed in the pores and ducts of the glands is an excellent breeding ground for bacteria that cause acne.
In frequent cases, formations on the face are a sign of internal diseases, more often associated with gastrointestinal problems.
The main causes of acne on the face:
- hormonal disorders
The main hormones that greatly influence the skin’s condition are androgens, estrogens, and testosterone.
The hormone androgen is the most important in regulating the sebum production by the sebaceous glands; from the beginning of puberty, this hormone stimulates the production of sebum and provokes the formation of acne.
- A group of female sex hormones responsible for the process of recovery.
- Maintaining skin metabolism.
- The production of hyaluronic acid.
- The synthesis of collagen fibers.
High estrogen levels negatively affect the functions of the endocrine system. Low estrogen levels lead to dry and flaky skin.
Testosterone is responsible for the secretion of the sebaceous glands; with its high level, the skin becomes oily, has enlarged pores, and acne appears.
Violation of the natural hormonal balance is a significant cause of acne and requires treatment from doctors such as dermatologists and endocrinologists.
- gastrointestinal diseases
The human body is a single complex system in which all organs, including the skin and the gastrointestinal tract, are interconnected. If the digestive system is disturbed in the body, then dryness, pigmentation, and signs of acne are possible on the skin. The main reason for the formation of acne associated with gastrointestinal disorders is the accumulation of toxins in the body, which leads to an imbalance in the intestinal microflora; as a result, the skin condition worsens, and there are signs of acne on the face. In addition, diseases such as dysbacteriosis, gastritis, ulcerative colitis, chronic constipation, etc., affect the appearance of the skin and its condition.
Acne associated with disorders of the digestive system requires consultation not only with a dermatologist but also with a gastroenterologist.
Proper and vitamin-rich nutrition is an excellent prevention of acne. A diet with an excess of flour products, dairy products, and fried and fatty foods disrupts the natural balance and provokes the development of acne. Improper nutrition causes changes in the normal functioning of the digestive system, as described above.
Hyperkeratosis is an excessive thickening of the top layer of the epidermis. As a result of increased exposure to chemicals, solar radiation, and constant pressure on the skin, the stratum corneum cells begins to divide intensively, which causes thickening. The process of detachment of keratinized epithelial cells is disturbed, and blockage of the ducts of the hair follicles and sebaceous glands is provoked.
- bacteria and microorganisms (Demodex mite)
Sebum and keratinized parts of the epidermal cells, which clog pores and ducts, are a suitable breeding ground for bacteria that cause purulent formations. One of the parasitic skin diseases affecting the face is Demodicosis. The cause of demodicosis is the subcutaneous mite Demodex; it leaves waste products in the glands of external secretion. Waste products of the mite are the cause of the formation of acne.
- Incorrectly selected cosmetic care.
Insufficient cleansing of the skin, makeup residue, sebum, dead skin cells – all this causes clogging of pores and the formation of acne. Incorrectly selected products for skin type and skin-irritating ingredients in decorative cosmetics can cause inflammation and increased sebum formation.
- stress, lack of sleep
Emotional overstrain causes increased production of cortisol, a hormone that stimulates carbohydrate and protein metabolism, regulates blood pressure, and protects the body from stress. Excess production of cortisol causes numerous problems, including skin problems – redness, acne, and other inflammations.
- external factors (climate, air pollution, harsh working conditions)
High temperature during hot periods causes increased sweating and active production of sebum, and the level of ultraviolet radiation received, which adversely affects the skin, is increased. Ultraviolet first dry out the rashes, but then it leads to even more increased sebum formation.
There are many different genes in the human body, each of which has its task. So, some genes of the epidermis are responsible for the formation and development of inflammatory processes. The tendency to develop acne and other inflammatory skin diseases is genetically transmitted.
Smoking, constantly touching the face, the rare processing of a mobile phone and accessories for cosmetics, and the infrequent change of towels and bed linen – all provoke acne formation.
Which doctor to contact
The initial consultation is carried out with a cosmetologist or dermatologist. After carrying out diagnostic measures and determining the cause of acne formation, it is possible to recommend a consultation with a gynecologist, gastroenterologist, neurologist, or allergist.
Diagnostics by areas of the face
Acne often appears on the nose, chin, and forehead – this is the T-zone. This is explained by the fact that a large number of glands of external secretion are located here, and in this zone, they are most active. Often the formation of acne in the T-zone is associated with problems in the stomach and intestines. For women, the presence of acne in the chin area also indicates problems in terms of gynecology. Pimples can also appear in other areas.
Map of the location of pimples on the skin of the face:
- The forehead is a problem with the digestive system and bladder.
- The skin around the eyes is a problem with the liver.
- Whiskey is a problem with the digestive system; it is necessary to check the gallbladder.
- Cheekbones are a problem with the lungs.
- Chin – a problem with the stomach; women should check the pelvic organs.
- The region of the nose and nose is a problem with the heart and pancreas.
- Cheeks – a problem with the gastrointestinal tract.
It is impossible to self-medicate according to the rash map; this is not evidence-based medicine but only the results of observations. A specialist prescribes treatment after a complete diagnosis and history taking.
How to get rid of acne (treatment methods)
As practice shows, manipulation at home without identifying the cause of the formation of rashes does not give a good result. Pimples go away, but after a certain time, they appear again. Moreover, self-treatment often causes complications and aggravates the initial situation. As a result, the number of rashes on the face becomes greater; the tissues recover much longer.
The cosmetology industry has a wide range of services to combat pimples; mesotherapy, plasmolifting, laser phototherapy, fractional photothermolysis, and peeling are the most effective.
The principle of the method is to introduce into the skin layers with the help of injections of special complex preparations; they perfectly nourish and moisturize the skin. The active components of the drug enhance the processes of metabolism and tissue repair, as well as removing toxins. Mesotherapy aims to reduce inflammatory reactions and improve the condition of superficial vessels. The main indications for the procedure are acne, age spots, and post-acne. After the mesotherapy procedure, the scars become less pronounced, and acne, other inflammations, and pigmentation disappear.
The method is based on achieving the desired effect with the help of injections of one’s alto plasma, separated from the patient’s blood. The resulting serum is injected into the problem area. The results after the procedure are even skin relief, acne and pigmentation are eliminated, and post-acne scars are reduced. Also, the skin is nourished and moisturized, cell renewal occurs, and the aging process slows down.
An effective way to reduce skin redness and reduce post-acne marks. The essence of the technique: intense pulsed light is applied to the red pigment, which is contained in dilated vessels and causes redness. The light enters under the skin and affects inflammation.
The laser exposure method consists of laser heat treatment; the result is that tissues damaged by acne signs are remodeled, pores are narrowed, scars are leveled, and post-acne spots disappear. The effect of rays on the skin is gentle and point-like, the damage is minimized, and the regeneration process is quite fast and painless.
Chemical peels are a cosmetic procedure that removes dead skin cells, stimulating the acceleration of skin renewal processes. Peeling stimulates the body’s defense functions, which increases the production of hyaluronic acid and other components responsible for the skin structure and its condition. Results: skin tone improves, unevenness, acne marks, fine wrinkles are smoothed, pores are narrowed, and age spots are lightened.
Is it possible to pop pimples?
Due to mechanical pressure on the pimple, its contents spread to healthy areas, and bacteria can also enter the focus of inflammation. Squeezing a pimple is tearing the skin where the inflammation has formed. The integrity of the skin is broken, and the infected follicle itself is damaged; this provokes an increase in inflammatory processes and causes further scar formation.
Opening a pimple must be done correctly; a professional facial cleansing specialist does this.
- It is important to take care of the face and use cleansers; seek advice and guidance from a specialist.
- Do not try to solve the problem of acne and other acne elements by squeezing them out; for treating rashes, it is better to use the means that a specialist prescribes.
- Do not touch your face; treat gadgets with special antibacterial agents.
Trust experienced cosmetologists, take care of your appearance, and sign up for cosmetic procedures in professional centers with qualified doctors.